talking loudly and using bad language

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talking loudly and using bad language

Post by azz » Wed Dec 26, 2018 7:00 am

a. They were being disrespectful, talking loudly and using bad language.

Does that mean
1. They were being disrespectful by talking loudly and using bad language.
or
2. They were being disrespectful and were talking loudly and using bad language.
?



b. They were arrogant, not respecting the social codes of behavior.


Does that mean

3. Their behavior was arrogant because they did not respect the social codes of behavior.
or
4. They were arrogant, and they did not respect the social codes of behavior.
?

Many thanks.
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Re: talking loudly and using bad language

Post by Phil White » Sat Dec 29, 2018 6:31 pm

Either.
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Signature: Phil White
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Re: talking loudly and using bad language

Post by gdwdwrkr » Sat Dec 29, 2018 6:54 pm

Also, as Shelly has pointed-out, the use of a comma can add clarity.
If you insert a comma into a., " They were being disrespectful, talking loudly, and using bad language.", then in the list each behavior stands alone.
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Re: talking loudly and using bad language

Post by Erik_Kowal » Sat Dec 29, 2018 9:45 pm

In the case of b), 3) applies.

A significant difference between a) and b) is that in a) specific behaviours are being described in the second clause. In b)'s second clause, a particular attitude is being described. So in the case of b), the second clause is merely underscoring or amplifying what has been stated in the first.
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