raised vs reared

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raised vs reared

Post by Julie Kay » Sat Apr 09, 2005 6:35 pm

Hello everybody!

Completing a multiple-choice test I stumbled across this:

"The trouble was that Jessica had been brought up by a strong, clear-minded and independent woman, and (1) ..... with the expectation that she would be the same..."

The choices for (1)

1 A raised
B grown
C produced
D reared

I chose 'reared' (D) as it seems to be the only suitable option since 'raise children/a family' is AmE and the book tests BrE. The key to the test, however, offers 'raised'. Could you please explain why I shouldn't use 'rear' here and if 'raise' has become widely used in Great Britain in the 'bring up' sense.

raised vs reared

Post by Ken Greenwald » Sat Apr 09, 2005 7:49 pm

Julie, Interesting. If I were taking the test, I would have been stumped as which to choose – they both seem fine to me. Here is what the experts had to say on the subject:

Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage (1985)

RAISE / REAR: Fifty years ago, the use of ‘raise’ in the expression “born and raised” so infuriated the late Frank H. Vizetelly, then editor of Funk & Wagnalls dictionaries, that he nearly exploded in his wrathful condemnation of the usage. “Raised’ should never be used in the sense of bringing human beings to maturity,” he snorted. “It is a misuse common in the southern and western United States. Cattle are ‘raised’; human beings are brought up or, in the older phrase, reared.”

Today, ‘raise’ in the sense of ‘to bring up’ or ‘to rear’ is perfectly good usage and it matters not whether you are bringing up people or cattle.

Oxford English Dictionary

RAISE: 10) a. To foster, rear, bring up (a person). Now chiefly U.S., and commonly in passages with specification of place. b. To rear or bring up (animals). c. To cause or promote the growth of (plants), to grow (fruit, vegetables, flowers, etc.).

REAR: 9) a. To bring (animals) to maturity or to a certain stage of growth by giving proper nourishment and attention; especially. to attend to the breeding and growth of (cattle, etc.) as an occupation. = raise. b. To bring up (a person), to foster, nourish, educate.= raise. c. To attend to, promote, or cause the growth of (plants); to grow (grain, etc.). = raise.

The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage (1998)

RAISE, REAR (verbs): The first is especially common in American English of the cultivation of plants (‘to raise corn’), the breeding and rearing of livestock (‘to raise cattle’), and of the bringing up of children (‘to raise a children’); but ‘rear’ is also used of livestock and children (‘to rear a child’), and ‘bring up’ of children (‘to bring up a family of four’). In British English, ‘raise’ is sometimes used in all three senses, but the more usual terms are ‘to cultivate’ or ‘to grow’ (plants), ‘to rear’ (animals), and ‘to bring up’ (children).

Garner’s Modern American Usage (2003)

RAISE and REAR: The old rule, still sometimes observed, is that crops and livestock are ‘raised’ and children are ‘reared.’ But today the phrase ‘born and raised’ is about eight times as common in print as ‘born and reared.’ And ‘raise’ in now standard as a synonym for rear. Indeed, ‘born and reared’ is likely to sound affected in American English.
<1986 “We parents so often blow the business of RAISING kids, but not because we violate any philosophy of child ‘raising.’”—‘Fatherhood’ by Bill Cosby, page 20>

<1997 “He earlier had worked in the candy-making business in Pittsburg, where he was born and RAISED.”—‘Washington Post,’ 8 August, page B4>

<2000 “My mother RAISED me to be polite.”—‘The Grammar Lady,’ Mary Newton Brudner, page 57>

Ken G – April 9, 2005

raised vs reared

Post by Bobinwales » Sun Apr 10, 2005 4:15 pm

I would agree with Fowler's last sentence.

I brought up my children, I would probably not use either of the two other options, although I would not queston their use by someone else.
Signature: All those years gone to waist!
Bob in Wales

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