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Entering IPA characters

Posted: Fri Feb 15, 2008 10:49 pm
by Forum Admin
If you wish to write phonetic transcriptions with the IPA alphabet, there is a magnificent tool for doing so at http://linguiste.org/phonetics/ipa/chart/keyboard/
Just piece together the trascription and copy it into your post.

Otherwise, here is the complete alphabet (you can also see whether your browser/operating system fully supports the IPA alphabet here). Firefox 2 and Internet Explorer 7 on modern Windows systems (after Windows 98) should display all the characters except for one correctly (tie bar below). Internet Explorer 6 displays most characters on most systems, and Internet Explorer 5 is really not very good.

UPDATE: the most recent versions of Firefox and Internet Explorer (under Windows 7) display all characters correctly.

The abbreviations vd and vl in the table stand for voiced and voiceless respectively.

Alphabetic

(excluding the standard characters a-z)
Symboldecimalhexvalue
ɑ5930251open back unrounded
ɐ5920250open-mid schwa
ɒ5940252open back rounded
æ23000E6raised open front unrounded
ɓ5950253vd bilabial implosive
ʙ6650299vd bilabial trill
β94603B2vd bilabial fricative
ɔ5960254open-mid back rounded
ɕ5970255vl alveolopalatal fricative
ç23100E7vl palatal fricative
ɗ5990257vd alveolar implosive
ɖ5980256vd retroflex plosive
ð24000F0vd dental fricative
ʤ67602A4vd postalveolar affricate
ə6010259schwa
ɘ6000258close-mid schwa
ɚ602025Arhotacized schwa
ɛ603025Bopen-mid front unrounded
ɜ604025Copen-mid central
ɝ605025Drhotacized open-mid central
ɞ606025Eopen-mid central rounded
ɟ607025Fvd palatal plosive
ʄ6440284vd palatal implosive
ɡ6090261vd velar plosive(but the IPA has ruled that an ordinary g is also acceptable)
ɠ6080260vd velar implosive
ɢ6100262vd uvular plosive
ʛ667029Bvd uvular implosive
ɦ6140266vd glottal fricative
ɧ6150267vl multiple-place fricative
ħ2950127vl pharyngeal fricative
ɥ6130265labial-palatal approximant
ʜ668029Cvl epiglottal fricative
ɨ6160268close central unrounded
ɪ618026Alax close front unrounded
ʝ669029Dvd palatal fricative
ɭ621026Dvd retroflex lateral
ɬ620026Cvl alveolar lateral fricative
ɫ619026Bvelarized vd alveolar lateral
ɮ622026Evd alveolar lateral fricative
ʟ671029Fvd velar lateral
ɱ6250271vd labiodental nasal
ɯ623026Fclose back unrounded
ɰ6240270velar approximant
ŋ331014Bvd velar nasal
ɳ6270273vd retroflex nasal
ɲ6260272vd palatal nasal
ɴ6280274vd uvular nasal
ø24800F8front close-mid rounded
ɵ6290275rounded schwa
ɸ6320278vl bilabial fricative
θ95203B8vl dental fricative
œ3390153front open-mid rounded
ɶ6300276front open rounded
ʘ6640298bilabial click
ɹ6330279vd (post)alveolar approximant
ɺ634027Avd alveolar lateral flap
ɾ638027Evd alveolar tap
ɻ635027Bvd retroflex approximant
ʀ6400280vd uvular trill
ʁ6410281vd uvular fricative
ɽ637027Dvd retroflex flap
ʂ6420282vl retroflex fricative
ʃ6430283vl postalveolar fricative
ʈ6480288vl retroflex plosive
ʧ67902A7vl postalveolar affricate
ʉ6490289close central rounded
ʋ651028Bvd labiodental approximant
ʊ650028Alax close back rounded
ʌ652028Copen-mid back unrounded
ɣ6110263vd velar fricative
ɤ6120264close-mid back unrounded
ʍ653028Dvl labial-velar fricative
χ96703C7vl uvular fricative
ʎ654028Evd palatal lateral
ʏ655028Flax close front rounded
ʑ6570291vd alveolopalatal fricative
ʐ6560290vd retroflex fricative
ʒ6580292vd postalveolar fricative
ʔ6600294glottal plosive
ʡ67302A1vd epiglottal plosive
ʕ6610295vd pharyngeal fricative
ʢ67402A2vd epiglottal fricative
ǀ44801C0dental click
ǁ44901C1alveolar lateral click
ǂ45001C2alveolar click
ǃ45101C3retroflex click

Spacing diacritics and suprasegmentals

To study these, you may find it helpful to set your browser text size to Largest.
Symboldecimalhexvalue
ˈ71202C8(primary) stress mark
ˌ71602CCsecondary stress
ː72002D0length mark NB: there is a bug in some versions of MS IExplorer that causes this character not to display. It is probably best to use a simple colon instead.
ˑ72102D1half-length
ʼ70002BCejective
ʴ69202B4rhotacized
ʰ68802B0aspirated
ʱ68902B1breathy-voice-aspirated
ʲ69002B2palatalized
ʷ69502B7labialized
ˠ73602E0velarized
ˤ74002E4pharyngealized
˞73402DErhotacized
Note the ready-made characters ɚ 602 025A (combining ə 601 0259 and ˞ 734 02DE) and ɝ 605 025D (combining ɜ 604 025C and ˞ 734 02DE).

Non-spacing diacritics and suprasegmentals

As you can see, several of these are unsatisfactory, particularly in smaller sizes. They are shown here with an appropriate supporting base character. The browser automatically backspaces the diacritic, but by a constant amount, which may or may not produce a satisfactory result.
Symboldecimalhexvalue
n̥ d̥8050325voiceless
ŋ̊778030Avoiceless (use if character has descender)
b̤ a̤8040324breathy voiced
t̪ d̪810032Adental
s̬ t̬812032Cvoiced
b̰ a̰8160330creaky voiced
t̺ d̺826033Aapical
t̼ d̼828033Clinguolabial
t̻ d̻827033Blaminal
794031Anot audibly released
ɔ̹8250339more rounded
7710303nasalized
ɔ̜796031Cless rounded
799031Fadvanced
8000320retracted
ë7760308centralized
l̴ n̴8200334velarized or pharyngealized
ɫ619026B(ready-made combination, dark l)
829033Dmid-centralized
e̝ ɹ̝797031Draised
m̩ n̩ l̩8090329syllabic
e̞ β̞798031Elowered
815032Fnon-syllabic
7920318advanced tongue root
7930319retracted tongue root
ĕ7740306extra-short
779030Bextra high tone
é7690301high tone
ē7720304mid tone
è7680300low tone
ȅ783030Fextra low tone
x͜x860035Ctie bar below
x͡x8650361tie bar above

Arrows

Symboldecimalhexvalue
85952193downstep
85932191upstep
85942192(becomes, is realized as — not recognized by the IPA)
85992197global rise
86002198global fall